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Types Of Dredger

Types Of Dredger

Hydraulic Dredger
The principal function of all dredgers in this class is that the loosened materials is raised from its in-situ state in suspension via a pipe system linked to a centrifugal pump. Varied means will be employed to achieve the initial loosening of the material. If it is naturally very loose, suction alone could also be ample, however firmer material might require mechanical loosening or the usage of water jets. Hydraulic dredging is most effective when working with fine materials, because they will easily be held in suspension. Coarser materials - and even gravel - will be worked but with a better demand on pump energy and with larger wear on pumps and pipes.

A Suction Dredger is a stationary dredger used to mine for sand. The suction pipe is pushed vertically right into a sand deposit. If vital water jets assist to carry the sand up. It's loaded into barges or pumped through pipeline directly to the reclamation area.

Profile or Plain Suction Dredger
In its most simple kind the Profile or Plain Suction Dredger consists of a pontoon able to support a pump and suction pipe and to make the connection to the offloading pipe. More sophisticated vessels have separate suction and delivery pumps, water jets at the suction inlet and articulated suction pipes. While working, a dredger could also be held in position by one or more spuds or, in deeper water, by a complex system of moorings. Plain suction dredgers are mainly used to win fill material for reclamation, with the fabric being positioned ashore through a floating pipeline. Very lengthy distances can be pumped by the addition of booster pumps within the line. Materials could alternatively be loaded directly into barges moored alongsideside. The traditional measures of dimension are the diameter of the offloading pipe, which can range between one hundred and 1,000 mm, or the installed horsepower.
Another use of plain suction dredgers - widespread in the USA - is to dredge from the navigation channel of a river and side cast the fabric to nearer the bank through a short pipeline or simply by jetting. In this function they are more commonly known as dust-pan dredgers.
Fashionable suction dredgers can recover material from nice depths and may extract sand from beneath a clay overburden. Known as a deep suction dredger, this type presents the potential to recover fill material from depths as much as one hundred m. Production could be very dependent upon the permeability of the fabric dredged and is greatest in clean sands.

A Cutter Suction Dredger is a stationary dredger which makes use of a cutter head to loosen the material to be dredged. It pumps the dredged materials via a pipeline ashore or into barges. While dredging the cutter head describes arcs and is swung around the spud-pole powered by winches. The cutter head can be replaced by a number of kinds of suction heads for special functions, corresponding to environmental dredging.
When the in-situ material is too compact to be removed by suction motion alone, some form of mechanical loosening have to be incorporated near the suction mouth. The commonest method is a rotating cutter: the principle characteristic of the cutter suction dredger. This is mounted at the lower finish of the ladder used to support the cutter drive and the suction pipe. The loosened materials then enters the suction mouth, passes by means of the suction pipe and pump (or pumps) and into the delivery line.
Cutter suction dredgers operate by swinging a couple of central working spud utilizing moorings leading from the decrease end of the ladder to anchors. By pulling on alternate sides the dredger clears an arc of minimize, and then moves forward by pushing against the working spud using a spud carriage. A typically smooth backside could be achieved, and fashionable instrumentation permits profiles and side slopes to be dredged accurately. Some of the larger cutter suction dredgers are self-propelled to allow easy movement from site to site.
The scale of a cutter suction dredger is measured by the diameter of the suction pipe and by the put in machinery power. Pipe diameters are within the range 100 to 1,500 mm. A modern highly automated cutter suction dredger is capable of achieving high outputs over sustained intervals and production rates of around 500,000 m³/week are doable under good conditions.
Cutter suction dredgers can be used to deliver by means of a pipe- line or to load barges. They may also be used merely as loosening units for material to be re-handled by one other type of dredger, in which mode offloading is directly over the strict to the sea. Pipeline offloading is most common however is vulnerable to waves and currents and causes an obstruction to other vessels. To avoid these problems part of the pipeline could also be submerged and laid on the channel-or sea-bed.
Cutter suction dredgers are mainly used for capital dredging, particularly when reclamation is related with the dredging. Smaller vessels might be dismantled into sections and moved by road or rail for work in inland waterways, sludge lagoons, reservoirs and related remoted areas. Giant heavy-duty cutter dredgers are capable of dredging some types of rock which haven't been pre-treated.
An alternate type of loosening is using a rotating bucket wheel on the suction mouth. Bucket wheel dredgers are most commonly utilized in mineral extraction operations and thus far haven't found normal favour among the many major international dredging contractors.

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